In the near future, the export processing zones and industrial parks will have their 50-year lease term expired, so it is necessary to determine an appropriate roadmap to gradually transform towards more efficient industrial park models.
Export Processing Zone, Industrial Park in Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh City has become an attractive destination for investors and businesses from many different countries, especially those operating in the fields of high technology, creativity, digital economy and other industries. Large investors are planning to shift their investment to Vietnam.
To have an overview, the Vietnam News Agency would like to introduce two articles on the current situation and related issues that the city's export processing zones and industrial parks have been rapidly changing to meet the requirements of the city. before the new period.
Lesson 1: Pioneering model
From the early 1990s until now, the city's export processing zones and industrial parks have achieved many initial achievements, creating a solid premise for the next stage of development. The initial goal of export processing zones and industrial parks is to attract foreign investment, promote export activities, and create a premise for Vietnam's economic integration with the world.
Solving the "problem" of labor
According to the Management Board of the Export Processing Zones, the City's Industrial Park (Hepza), up to now, HCMC. Ho Chi Minh City has 17/19 export processing zones and industrial parks established and put into operation with the leased land area reaching 1,948 ha/total 2,539.06 ha, reaching the occupancy rate of 77%.
Basically, the city's export processing zones and industrial parks meet the requirements set forth in attracting investment capital, developing industrial production, creating jobs, importing technology and advanced management experience. improve export value. At the same time, step by step participate in the global production network and value chain, make a significant contribution to the state budget, contribute to the socio-economic development of the city in the direction of transforming the agricultural area. backward into a developed urban-industrial area.
However, in the early stages of development, the city took the criterion of "filling" to solve the "problem" of labor; not much experience in accessing technology, capital and management level from abroad, so there is no choice of investment projects. Export processing zones and industrial parks lack attractiveness in terms of preferential policies, synchronous infrastructure, land sublease prices, human resources; Difficulty in compensation and site clearance work, so there is a lack of large land fund...
Mr. Nguyen Hoang Nang, former Head of Management Board of Export Processing Zones, Industrial Parks of Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh also acknowledged that this makes the quality and effectiveness of attracting investment in export processing zones and industrial parks not yet meeting the requirements of in-depth development; has not yet attracted many projects with large scale of investment capital, advanced technology, gray matter content, high added value and pervasive nature. The average rate of investment attraction per hectare of industrial land for lease has increased over time, but the land use efficiency of the zones is not high or in other words is still low compared to the potential and advantages. of the City.
Along with that is the lack of synchronous infrastructure serving the industrial park; some industrial parks established in the early stages lack social infrastructure facilities to serve the daily needs of workers. Therefore, social infrastructure in export processing zones and industrial zones has not met the needs of more than 71% of migrant workers from the provinces. Although the transport system connecting to export processing zones and industrial parks has improved, it has not been planned and built in sync with the development of export processing zones and industrial zones.
“After 30 years of establishment, the development model of the city's industrial parks has been slow to innovate, mainly developing in the direction of multi-industry and multi-field. Association and cooperation in export processing zones and industrial parks; between export processing zones, industrial parks and between export processing zones, industrial parks and the outside area is still limited, the level of localization is still low; there is a lack of specialized and specialized industrial parks,” said Mr. Nang.
Sharing about this issue, Mr. Hua Quoc Hung, Head of Management Board of Export Processing Zones, Industrial Parks of Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh also pointed out the limitations of human resources, the quality of human resources has not met the needs of restructuring investment, so it must be retrained.
Although the management model under the "One-stop shop, on-site" mechanism has been promoted and replicated, there are still many shortcomings. The regulations on export processing zones and industrial parks are only adjusted at the decree level, not yet fully implemented. institutionalized at the legal level.
The position, functions, tasks and organizational structure of the Area Management Board are not clear, stable, not fully decentralized and have enough legal grounds to implement the policy of administrative procedure reform. under the "One-stop shop, on-site" model of the Government. Many legal documents on specialized management are not consistent with the regulations on functions and tasks of the Management Board…
Mr. Hung added that in the near future, export processing zones and industrial zones will expire in turn of 50 years. land lease from the state, so it is necessary to determine an appropriate route to step by step transition to more efficient industrial park models.
Accordingly, focusing on restructuring industries towards high technology, green industry, participating in the global production chain; reduce labor-intensive, land-intensive industries, increase technology-intensive industries. At the same time, focus on building new industrial parks specializing in pharmaceutical industry, information technology, electronics, mechanical engineering, food and food... in association with digital transformation and innovation in order to sustainable development of export processing zones and industrial zones.
Increase investment efficiency
According to Hepza's statistics, currently, investment capital in the electronics and information technology industry in export processing zones and industrial parks accounts for 4.78% of the total capital of projects, with an investment capital of 1.81 billion USD. ; the average rate of attracting investment capital reached 17.61 million USD/ha of land. For labor-intensive industries in export processing zones and industrial parks, investment capital accounts for 17.51% of the total projects with an investment capital of 1.79 billion USD; the average rate of attracting investment capital reached 5.57 million USD/ha of land.
“This shows that the fact that the efficiency of attracting investment in the high-tech industry is always superior and much higher than that of labor-intensive industries and traditional manufacturing industries. This is also a problem for infrastructure companies, managing export processing zones and industrial parks, aiming to reduce labor-intensive industries, form a "green" industrial park, attract brains, protect financial resources and environment", shared Mr. Tran Viet Ha, Deputy Manager of Hepza Management Board.
Typically, in Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone, there are 220 operating enterprises, of which 110 are in traditional, labor-intensive manufacturing industries; 70 high-tech manufacturing enterprises, the rest are in service industries. In recent years, implementing investment restructuring, Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone has attracted many investment projects in software, hardware, and information technology services, such as: Renesas Company, VNG, FPT. , CMC, Sao Bac Dau... bring high economic value.
Sharing his experience on attracting high-tech enterprises to invest in EPZs, Mr. TSao Chung Hung, General Director of Tan Thuan Company Limited (an enterprise that manages and operates Tan EPZ). Thuan) said that the company applies reasonable land rental prices so as not to create financial pressure on customers; invest in building factories in line with the needs of high-tech enterprises so that they have ready infrastructure to go into production, without taking much time to wait.
However, the current difficulty is that City. Ho Chi Minh City has not had a policy to encourage labor-intensive enterprises to relocate, so these enterprises will still operate until the end of the land lease term. “Therefore, service units that manage the infrastructure of export processing zones and industrial parks have no choice but to transform their own structure to attract investment and encourage enterprises to transform their operating models through mechanisms and policies. policies that each export processing zone and industrial park considers appropriate to support businesses,” shared Mr. TSao Chung Hung.
Sharing the same view, Mr. Tran Tuu, Chairman of the Board of Directors, General Director of SaVi Pharmaceutical Joint Stock Company (in Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone) said that the city should continue to support businesses to invest in projects. Key projects are entitled to demand stimulus policies and investment interest rate exemptions and reductions. The State continues to perfect policies to encourage enterprises to make efforts to innovate technology; at the same time, encourage enterprises of key industries in the city to quickly renew their activities towards a high-knowledge and efficient production model.
Mr. Tran Tuu also shared his experience of investing and renovating the High-tech Research and Development Center; in which all advanced technological equipment of the pharmaceutical factory originates from developed countries. This issue not only affirms that the company is always aiming for a green production model, protecting natural resources and the environment, but also towards applying high technology, participating in the global production chain.
Sharing the same view, Mr. Vu Tien Loc, Chairman of the Vietnam International Arbitration Center (VIAC) said that, with the orientation of industrialization and modernization of the country, export processing zones and industrial parks play a vital role. play an important role in attracting investment in the manufacturing sector and contributing to the state budget.
In City. In Ho Chi Minh City, on average, export processing zones and industrial zones attract more than 260 million USD of foreign investment every year, accounting for 58% of the city's foreign investment capital in the field of industrial production. The average annual export value of export processing zones and industrial zones reaches 7 billion USD, accounting for over 15% of the city's total export turnover; average annual payment of more than 22,000 billion VND to the state budget, accounting for 6% of the city's budget revenue (excluding crude oil).
Mr. Vu Tien Loc said that new investment capital is circulating quickly after the events from the pandemic and the impacts of the world economic situation. Foreign investors are increasingly interested in the environment and investment conditions, especially in Vietnam compared to other countries in Southeast Asia. This is also the time for export processing zones and industrial parks to take advantage of opportunities or, thanks to preferential policies, zones with many advantages become the destination of choice for investors.
However, to attract investment in export processing zones, industrial parks, the city needs to focus on operation and support for investors; planning of zones has not been associated with the master plan and closely follows actual needs; forming an international standard business support area. Strengthening the connection between industrial parks with technology activities or training high-quality human resources; to step up the provision of services and utilities to serve production and life needs for the workforce working in the zones; transport connections, logistics services, houses, supermarkets, schools, hospitals...
List of companies in Industrial & Cluster parks in HCMC: